Cite a Paper

MLA Documentation (Rev. 1/2013)

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Information you have borrowed from a source, such as quotations, summaries, and paraphrases, must be clearly documented.

In-text Citations

Use parentheses within the body of your paper to cite sources. Such citations should be as concise as possible but complete enough so that readers can find the source in the list of works cited at the end of the paper, (where works are listed alphabetically by authors’ last names).

At the end of a sentence that contains a parenthetical citation, put a period after the parenthesis. When the sentence ends with a quotation, put the parenthesis outside the quotations marks, but inside the period. According to the Seventh Edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, when a quotation ends with a question mark or exclamation point, keep the original punctuation.

Note: The examples below would normally be double-spaced. Depending on the type of source, titles may be italicized or in quotes.

author not named in the sentence

This point of Melville’s contribution to the American symbolist movement has been argued successfully (Baird 19).

author named in the sentence

James Baird argues convincingly that Melville shaped a new symbolist literature (19).

two or more works by the same author

Note: Use a shortened version of the book’s title in the parentheses

Good writing is often achieved “after terrible first efforts,” declares Anne Lamott (Bird 25).

or mention the title in the sentence.

In Bird by Bird, Ann Lamott declares that good writing is often achieved “after terrible first efforts” (25).

two or three authors

Many bronze objects from the Han period have been discovered in recent years (Cohen and Cohen 90).

Cohen and Cohen report that bronze objects from the Han period have been discovered in recent years (90).

four or more authors

Chan repudiates critics’ observations that her art has didactic purpose (Valdez et al. 17).

Note: Use et al (Latin word for and others) when citing four authors or more.

 a work with no author

Note: In the parentheses, begin with the word by which the title is alphabetized in the Works Cited.

A candidate for a management position can often expect to receive up to three interviews before an offer is made (Directory 73).

 a work in an anthology

Note: Put the name of the author of the work (not the editor) in the sentence or in the parentheses.

A student discovers “the value of her or his own voice” with the computer conference, an important pedagogical tool in the composition classroom (Flores 115).

 an entire work

Note: It is usually preferable in this case to include the author’s name in the text instead of in parentheses.

Fugard’s Playland anticipates the end of apartheid in South Africa and intimates hope for the future.

 an electronic source

Note: If the source has an author and page number, follow the same rules as for print sources.

 a passage in a novel

Note: Include information that will enable readers to find the passage in various editions of the work. Write the page and chapter numbers in the parentheses.

Tan’s narrator describes the physical features of Hulan as unattractive, then asserts she does not criticize out of anger toward her friend: “Even though I am angry, I can remember many good things about Hulan as well” (215; ch. 9).

 the Bible

Note: Cite biblical passages in parentheses by giving the abbreviated name of the biblical book, chapter, and verse numbers. Ex. (Gen. 28.12-13). See the MLA Handbook pg. 251 for a complete list of abbreviations. You need to include the edition of the Bible on your Works Cited page.

                                                                                                                                                           

List of Works Cited (formerly called a Bibliography)

Start on a new page and title your list “Works Cited.” Then list in alphabetical order all the sources that you have cited in the paper. If the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The which is explained throughout this handout. Subsequent lines in each entry should be indented 5 spaces (see attached sample Works Cited page on page 9).

Note: The examples below would normally be double-spaced.

Books

Note: Do not include affiliations, titles, or degrees for names such as PhD. When there is missing information, use the following to replace the information: n.p. for no place of publication given and no publisher given, n.d. for no date of publication given and n. pag. for no pagination given.

one author

Bloom, Harold. The Anxiety of Influence. London: Oxford UP, 1973. Print.

two or three authors

Minor, Ed, and Harvey R. Frye. Techniques for Producing Visual Instructional Media. New York: McGraw-       Hill, 1970. Print.

Silverman, Jay, Elaine Hughes, and Diane Roberts Wienbroer. Rules of Thumb: A Guide for Writers. New             York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. Print.

four or more authors

Harte, John, et al. Toxics A to Z: A Guide to Everyday Pollution Hazards. Berkeley: U of California P, 1991.             Print.

Note: Use et al (Latin word for and others) when citing four authors or more.

corporate author

National Research Council. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington: Natl. Acad., 1974. Print.

 no author named

Directory of Executive Recruiters. Albany: Kennedy, 1990. Print.

 author with an editor

Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. Ed. Jerome Loving. Oxford: Oxford U P, 1990. Print.

 a work with an editor

Haslam, Gerald W., ed. Many Californias: Literature from the Golden State. Reno: U of Nevada P, 1992.             Print.

 Kennedy, X.J., and Dorothy M. Kennedy, eds. The Bedford Reader. New York: St. Martin’s Press, Inc., 1982.

Print.

 an essay, short story, poem, or another work within an anthology

Kingston, Maxine Hong. “The Quiet Girl.” California Childhood. Ed. Gary Soto. Berkeley: Creative Arts,             1988. 107-112. Print.

 a translated work

Esquivel, Laura. Like Water for Chocolate. Trans. Carol Christensen and Thomas Christensen. New York:

            Anchor Books, 1992. Print.

 an article without an author in an encyclopedia, dictionary, or some other reference book

“Carbohydrate.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1979. Print.

 an article in a collection

Iannone, Carol. “Toni Morrison’s Career.” Commentary 84.6 (1987): 59-63. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary             Criticism. Ed. James P. Draper. Vol. 81. Detroit: Gale, 1994. 229-232. Print.

 a pamphlet (treat as you would a book)

Central Coast Birds. Sacramento: National Audubon Society, 1997. Print.

 two or more works by the same author

Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird. New York: Pantheon, 1994. Print.

---. Operating Instructions. New York: Ballantine, 1993. Print.

 Note: Use dashes to replace the name of the author when the author’s name is cited above.

 a book with more than one volume

Note: Specific references to vol. and page number also belong in the parenthetical reference. Ex. (Doyle 2: 25)

Doyle, Arthur Conan. The Complete Sherlock Holmes. 2 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1930. Print.

an introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword

Morely, Christopher. Preface. The Complete Sherlock Holmes. By Arthur Conan Doyle. New York:         Doubleday, 1930. 7-10. Print.

Newspapers, Magazines, Journals, and other sources

Note: Do not include articles, affiliations, titles, or degrees for names such as PhD or A, An, or The in the title of a source unless it is a non-English-language journal. When there is missing information, use the following to replace the information: n.p. for no place of publication and no publisher given, n.d. for no date of publication, and n. pag. for no pagination given.

 a newspaper with a section letter

Hyne, Liz. “Oil Lingo Adds Rich Segment to English Language.” Odessa American 23 May 1967: A14. Print.

with a section number

Alvarez, Monica. “A Border Town Celebration.” Dallas News 11 Sept. 1986, sec. 3:5. Print.

a newspaper article without an author

Note: Include the edition of the newspaper if it is specified on the masthead. Use a plus sign after the first page number if the article did not appear on consecutive pages.

“Culture Shock: Williamsburg and Disneyworld, Back to Back.” New York Times 23 Sept. 1998, late ed., sec.     2: 1+. Print.

a newspaper editorial

Greenhouse, Linda.“Court Changes the Game.” Editorial. New York Times 30 June 2009: A19. Print.

a weekly or biweekly magazine

Goodell, Jeff. “The Fevered Rise of America Online.” Rolling Stone 3 Oct. 1996: 60-66.Print.

a monthly or bimonthly magazine

McPherson, James M. “Commander in Chief.” Smithsonian Jan. 2009: 38-45. Print.

a magazine article without an author

“The Decline of the Beta System.” Newsweek 21 Sept. 1984: 55-56.Print.

a letter to the editor

March, Joan. Letter. Time 11 May 2009: 16. Print.

a book or film review

Lacayo, Richard. “Darkness Visible.” Rev. of Cheever: A Life, by Blake Bailey. Time 6 Apr. 2009: 64. Print.

Lane, Anthony. “Need a Job?” Rev. of Tokyo Sonata, dir. Kiyoshi Kurosawa. New Yorker 23 Mar. 2009: 82-83.

            Print.

a journal with page numbers that continue to the next issue

Malone, Kemp. “Meaningful Fictitious Names in English Literature.” Names 5 (1967): 312-15. Print.

a journal with pages that start anew with each issue

Brown, Clark. “Slaves of the Word.” Writing on the Edge 2.2 (1991): 59-61.Print.

a government publication

United States. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Outlook Handbook. Washington: GPO, 1979. Print.

a television or radio program

“Behind Bars.” Mandela’s Fight for Freedom. Narr. Alfre Woodard. Discovery Journal. Discovery Channel.             Boston. 21 Apr. 1995. Print.

Writer’s Almanac. Host Garrison Keillor. Natl. Public Radio. KCBX, San Luis Obispo. 15 Dec. 1998. Print.

a movie

Casablanca. Dir. Michael Curtiz. Perf. Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, and Paul Henreid. 1943. Film.

a movie on videocassette or DVD

Casablanca. Dir. Michael Curtiz. Perf. Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, and Paul Henreid. 1943.             Videocassette. United Artists, 1970. DVD or videocassette.

a work of art

Van Gogh, Vincent. The Irises. 1889. Oil on canvas. J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.

a live performance of a play

Hamlet. By William Shakespeare. Dir. Kenneth Branagh. Perf. Kenneth Branagh, Derek Jacoby, and Julia

Christie. The Globe Theatre, London. 27 Dec. 1991. Performance.

a lecture, a speech, an address, or a reading

Atwood, Margaret. “Silencing the Scream.” Boundaries of the Imagination Forum. MLA Convention. Royal             York Hotel, Toronto. 29 Dec. 1993. Address.

Hyman, Earle. Shakespeare’s Othello. Symphony Space, New York. 28 Mar. 1994. Reading.

Terkel, Studs. Conf. on Coll. Composition and Communication Convention. Palmer House, Chicago. 22 Mar.1990. Address.

an interview you conducted

Young, Mary W. Personal Interview. 22 Oct. 1981. 

a radio or television interview

Smooth, Jay. Interview by Neda Ulaby. All Things Considered. Natl. Public Radio. KCBX, San Luis Obispo.

29 June 2009. Radio.

Online Sources

Note: The URL is not necessary unless your instructor advises its use. The URL located in the address bar at the top of the computer screen is the Internet address used by browser software to connect to World Wide Web sites. On most keyboards, angle brackets are located on the comma and period keys. If you must divide the URL at the end of a line, do so at a slash; no hyphen is necessary. Another option is to highlight the URL and cut and paste it into your document.

an entire Internet site

model

Title of the site. Name of the editor of the site (if given). Electronic publication information including version, number, date of publication or latest update, and name of sponsoring organization, if any. Information about electronic publication. Web. Date of access and URL( if your instructor requests it).

Example with and without a URL

The Cinderella Project. Ed. Michael N. Salda. Vers. 1.1. Dec. 1997. De Grummond Children’s Lit. Research Collection, U of Southern Mississippi. Web. 15 May 2003.

ebooks (books from NetLibrary)

Chopin, Kate. Awakening. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Library, 1997. NetLibrary. Web. 8 Oct. 2010.

Databases

Model

Name of the author or editor (if given). Title of the work in italics if it is from an independent source in Times New Roman type and quotation marks if it is part of a larger work. Title of the entire website in italics, if it is different from the title. Version or edition used (if given). Publisher or sponsor of the site; if not available, use N.p. Date of publication (day, month, and year if given). If not given, use n.d. Type of publication (Web). Date of Access.

ERIC

De Waal, Elda and M. M. Grosser. Safety and Security at School: A Pedagogical Perspective. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies. Print. Education Resources Information Center (ERIC). July 2009. Web. 23 June 2009.

Blog

Note: Ask your instructor before using a blog.

model

Name of the author (if given). “Title of Entry.” Weblog Entry. Title of Weblog. Date Posted. Web. Date of access.

example

Sullivan. “U.S. Supreme Court Ruling on Special Education.” Weblog. Left Brain Right Brain: Autism News

Science and Opinion. 24 June 2009. Web. 24 June 2009.

a home page for a course

model

Instructor’s Name. Title of Course. Description. Dates of the Course. Name of the Department, Name of Institution. Date of Access and URL if your instructor requests it. Information about electronic publication. Web. Access information.

example

Cuddy-Keane, Melba. Professing Literature. Course home page. Sept. 2000-Apr. 2001. Dept. of English, U of Toronto. Web. 4 Oct. 2002.

a home page for an academic department

model

Name of the Department. Description. Name of Institution. Information about electronic publication. Date of publication. If not available, use n.d. Web. Date of Access.

example

Microbiology and Immunology. Dept. home page. Stanford U School of Medicine. n.d. Web. 4 Oct. 2002.

a personal site

model

Author’s Name. “Title of Document.” Information about print publication. Information about electronic publication. Web. Access information.

example

Lancashire, Ian. Home page. 28 Mar. 2002. Web. 15 May 2002.

a professional site

model

Author’s Name. “Title of Document.” Information about print publication. Information about electronic publication. Web. Access information.

examples

Ross, Don. “Game Theory.” 11 Sept. 2001. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Edward N. Zalta. Fall 2002 ed. Center for the Study of Lang. and Information, Stanford U. Web. 1 Oct. 2002.

Zeki, Semir. “Artistic Creativity and the Brain.” Science 6 July 2001: 51-52. Science Magazine. 2002. Amer. Assn. for the Advancement of Science. Web. 24 Sept. 2002.

an article in an online periodical

Follow the guidelines for printed articles, and give whatever information is available in the online source. At the end of the citation, include the date of access and the address if your instructor requests it.

example

Uy, Grace. “Looking at the Work of Amy Tan.” Daily Illini 20 Jan. 1998: 20. Web. 17 Dec. 1998.

if your instructor requests it.

example

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Web. 16 Mar. 1998.

If the online book is part of a scholarly project or information database, include the editor’s name (if available) followed by information about the project or database.

example

Dickinson, Emily. “Hope.” Poems by Emily Dickinson. 3rd ser. Boston, 1896. Project Bartleby Archive. Ed. Steven Van Leeuwen. Dec. 1995. Columbia U. Web. 2 Feb. 1998. 

an online government publication

United States. Dept. of Justice. Office of Juvenile Justice and DelinquencyPrevention. Law Enforcement and Juvenile Crime. By Howard N. Snyder. Dec. 2001. Web. 29 June 2002.

e-mail correspondence

Note: Include the author, subject line, “E-mail” followed by the recipient, and date of the message.

Underwood, Kelly. “Re: Surveys.” Message to Mimi Velasquez. 1 June.2009. E-mail.

an encyclopedia entry

Note: List the author first (if there is one); otherwise, start with the title of the entry.

“Panama Canal.” EncyclopediaBritannicaonline. Encyclopedia Britannica. 1999-2000. Web. 8 July 2000.

A source from an online service that a library subscribes to (such as SIRS, ProQuest, Infotrac, etc.).

Note: Use the URL from the home page of the online service instead of from the article itself if your instructor requires a URL.

SIRS

In the citation, you must list the name of the database, the library in which you found it, and the date of access followed by the URL.

Shillington, Patty. “Facing our Mortality: The Kevorkian Factor.” The Miami Herald 8 June 1994: 1E+. SIRS Knowledge Source: Researcher. SIRS. Allan Hancock Coll. Lib., Santa Maria. Web. 5 Nov. 1999.

ProQuest

Grayson, George W. “NATO after Kosovo.” Commonweal 8 Oct. 1999: 11-12. ProQuest Direct. Allan Hancock Coll. Lib., Santa Maria. Web. 22 Nov. 1999.

A source from an online service that you subscribe to personally (such as Compuserve, America Online, Nexis, etc.)

Note: If a URL is available and your instructor requests it, list it last in the citation. If no URL is available, write Keyword followed by the word you entered.

model

Author’s Last Name, First Name (if available). “Title of Article.” Title of Source. Date of publication: Name of computer service. Information about electronic publication. Date of access. Keyword: word.

example

Balzer, Howard. “Football.” Compton’s Encyclopedia Online. Vers. 3.0. 1998. America Online. Web.

19 Nov. 1999. Keyword: Compton’s.

“Domestic Abuse.” Mayo Clinic Health Information. 12 Mar. 1999. America Online. Web. 19 Nov. 1999. Keyword: Women’s Health.

Note: If you chose a topic label that led you to other topics, write Path followed by the name of each topic. Use a semi-colon between each topic.

model

Author’s Last Name, First Name (if available). “Title of Article.” Title of Source. Date of publication: Name of computer service. Information about electronic publication. Date of access. Path: topic; topic; topic.

example

Arellano-Shelby, Maria. “High-Tech Entrepreneurs.” Hispanic. March 1998. America Online. Web.

23 April 1999. Path: Research and Learning; History; Cultures; Hispanic Online; Mundo; Latinos and Technology.

Sample Work Cited Page

                                                                                                                                    Chavez 6

 

Works Cited

American Memory. 8 Dec. 1998. Library of Congress. Web. 17 Dec. 1998.

Henson, Paul, and Donald J. Usner. The Natural History of Big Sur. Berkeley: U of

California P, 1993. Print.

Hyne, Liz. “Oil Lingo Adds Rich Segment to English Language.” Odessa American. 23

May 1967: A14. Print.

Kaplan, Robert D. “History Moving North.” Atlantic Monthly. Feb. 1997: 21+. SIRS

Knowledge Source: Researcher. SIRS. Allan Hancock Coll. Lib., Santa Maria. Web. 5 Nov. 1999.

“Mount Shasta.” Grolier’s Encyclopedia. 1995 ed. CD-ROM. Danbury: Grolier, 1995. Print.

Stevenson, R.L. Kidnapped. Baltimore: Penguin, 1946. Print.

Young, Mary W. Personal interview. 22 Oct. 1981.

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